A tale of 100 kidney stones

Crohn’s disease with diarrhea predisposes to calcium oxalate stones primarily because of enteric hyperoxaluria from fat malabsorption and saponification resulting in usage of calcium and less formation of insoluble calcium oxalate salts in the intestinal lumen. There is thus increased gastrointestinal oxalate absorption leading to increased urinary oxalate excretion. Other factors include increased oxalate colonic mucosa permeability and gastrointestinal tract decolonization of the … Leggi tutto

Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis and Gut Microbiota: Not just a Gut-Kidney Axis. A Nutritional Perspective

Recent studies have shown that patients with kidney stone disease, and particularlycalcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, exhibit dysbiosis in their fecal and urinary microbiota comparedwith controls. The alterations of microbiota go far beyond the simple presence and representation ofOxalobacter formigenes, a well-known symbiont exhibiting a marked capacity of degrading dietaryoxalate and stimulating oxalate secretion by the gut … Leggi tutto

A Perspective on the Metabolic Potential for Microbial Contributions to Urolithiasis

the diet, host metabolism, and microbial metabolism. The microbial contribution to these compounds is perhaps the most variable given the immense diversity and interindividual variability of microbes inhabiting hosts (microbiome) and the plasticity of host associated microbial communities over time. Recent analyses have found significant associations between antibiotic use and the onset of urolithiasis  as … Leggi tutto

Hyperoxaluria: a gut–kidney axis?

Hyperoxaluria leads to urinary calcium oxalate (CaOx) supersaturation, resulting in the formation and retention of CaOx crystals in renal tissue. CaOx crystals may contribute to the formation of diffuse renal calcifications (nephrocalcinosis) or stones (nephrolithiasis). When the innate renal defense mechanisms are suppressed, injury and progressive inflammation caused by these CaOx crystals, together with secondary … Leggi tutto