2 – Nephrocalcinosis and urolithiasis in children Kidney International (2012) 82, 493–497; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.142

Correction to: Kidney International (2011) 80:1278–1291; doi:10.1038/ki.2011.336 In the above-cited article, Table 2 was published with incorrect alignment of age ranges and erroneous unit changes concerning the cystine and urate excretion levels. The urate gram units needed to be multiplied by 10. In Table 1, the diagnosis related to NPT2a mutations should read ‘Urolithiasis, osteoporosis, … Leggi tutto

Genetics of kidney stone disease

Kidney stone disease (nephrolithiasis) is a common problem that can be associated with alterations in urinary solute composition including hypercalciuria. Studies suggest that the prevalence of monogenic kidney stone disorders, including renal tubular acidosis with deafness, Bartter syndrome, primary hyperoxaluria and cystinuria, in patients attending kidney stone clinics is ∼15%. However, for the majority of … Leggi tutto

Genetics of kidney stone disease—Polygenic meets monogenic

Kidney stone disease comprising nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis is a clinical syndrome of increasing prevalence with remarkable heterogeneity. Stone composition, age of manifestation, rate of recurrence, and impairment of kidney function varies with underlying etiologies. While calcium-based kidney stones account for the vast majority their etiology is still poorly understood. Recent studies underline the notion that … Leggi tutto

Distal renal tubular acidosis: ERKNet/ESPN clinical practice points

Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is characterized by an impaired ability of the distal tubule to excrete acid, leading to metabolic acidosis. Associated complications include bone disease, growth failure, urolithiasis and hypokalaemia. Due to its rarity, there is limited evidence to guide diagnosis and management; however, available data strongly suggest that metabolic control of the … Leggi tutto

Gestione dell’Iperossaluria Primitiva tipo 1 in Italia

L’iperossaluria primitiva tipo 1 è una malattia genetica rara; l’esordio dei sintomi varia dall’infanzia alla sesta decade di vita e la malattia può non essere riconosciuta per diversi anni. C’è la necessità di farmaci in grado di inibire la produzione epatica di ossalato e di prevenire la progressione della malattia; uno dei farmaci più promettenti … Leggi tutto

Genetic defects underlying renal stone disease

Renal stones are common and are usually secondary to risk factors affecting the solubility of substances in the urinary tract. Primary, that is genetic, causes are rare but nevertheless are important to recognise so that appropriate treatments can be instigated and the risks to other family members acknowledged. A brief overview of the investigation of … Leggi tutto

Perspectives in primary hyperoxaluria — historical, current and future clinical interventions

Primary hyperoxalurias are a devastating family of diseases leading to multisystem oxalate deposition, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and end-stage renal disease. Traditional treatment paradigms are limited to conservative management, dialysis and combined transplantation of the kidney and liver, of which the liver is the primary source of oxalate production. However, transplantation is associated with many potential complications, … Leggi tutto

Mutations in CYP24A1 and Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemi

The presence of CYP24A1 mutations explains the increased sensitivity to vitamin D in patients with idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia and is a genetic risk factor for the development of symptomatic hypercalcemia that may be triggered by vitamin D prophylaxis in otherwise apparently healthy infants 0