enterica

A Perspective on the Metabolic Potential for Microbial Contributions to Urolithiasis

the diet, host metabolism, and microbial metabolism. The microbial contribution to these compounds is perhaps the most variable given the immense diversity and interindividual variability of microbes inhabiting hosts (microbiome) and the plasticity of host associated microbial communities over time. Recent analyses have found significant associations between antibiotic use and the onset of urolithiasis  as … Leggi tutto

Primary and secondary hyperoxaluria: Understanding the enigma

Hyperoxaluria is characterized by an increased urinary excretion of oxalate. Primary and secondary hyperoxaluria are two distinct clinical expressions of hyperoxaluria. Primary hyperoxaluria is an inherited error of metabolism due to defective enzyme activity. In contrast, secondary hyperoxaluria is caused by increased dietary ingestion of oxalate, precursors of oxalate or alteration in intestinal microflora. Clinical … Leggi tutto

Risk Factors for Kidney Stone Formation following Bariatric Surgery

Kidney stones are painful, common, and increasing in incidence. Obesity and bariatric surgery rates are also on the rise in the United States. Although bariatric surgery is associated with improvements in metabolic outcomes, malabsorptive bariatric surgery procedures are also associated with increased risk of kidney stones. Restrictive bariatric surgeries have not been associated with kidney-stone … Leggi tutto

Oxalate Nephropathy Associated with Chronic Pancreatitis

Enteric overabsorption of oxalate may lead to hyperoxaluria and subsequent acute oxalate nephritis (AON). AON related to chronic pancreatitis is a rare and poorly described condition precluding early recognition and treatment. AON is an under-recognized severe crystal-induced renal disease with features of tubulointerstitial nephritis that may occur in patients with a long history of chronic … Leggi tutto

Hyperoxaluria: a gut–kidney axis?

Hyperoxaluria leads to urinary calcium oxalate (CaOx) supersaturation, resulting in the formation and retention of CaOx crystals in renal tissue. CaOx crystals may contribute to the formation of diffuse renal calcifications (nephrocalcinosis) or stones (nephrolithiasis). When the innate renal defense mechanisms are suppressed, injury and progressive inflammation caused by these CaOx crystals, together with secondary … Leggi tutto