Management of de novo nephrolithiasis after kidney transplantation: a comprehensive review from the European Renal Association CKD-MBD working group

The lifetime incidence of kidney stones is 6%โ€“12% in the general population. Nephrolithiasis is a known cause of acute and chronic kidney injury, mediated via obstructive uropathy or crystal-induced nephropathy, and several modifiable and non-modifiable genetic and lifestyle causes have been described. Evidence for epidemiology and management of nephrolithiasis after kidney transplantation is limited by a low number of publications, small study sizes and short observational periods. Denervation of the kidney and ureter graft greatly reduces symptomatology of kidney stones in transplant recipients, which may contribute to a considerable underdiagnosis. Thus, reported prevalence rates of 1%โ€“2% after kidney transplantation and the lack of adverse effects on allograft function and survival should be interpreted with caution. In this narrative review we summarize current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention and therapy of nephrolithiasis after kidney transplantation, including management of asymptomatic stone disease in kidney donors. Our aim is to strengthen clinical nephrologists who treat kidney transplant recipients in informed decision-making regarding management of kidney stones. Available evidence, supporting both surgical and medical treatment and prevention of kidney stones, is presented and critically discussed. The specific anatomy of the transplanted kidney and urinary tract requires deviation from established interventional approaches…


AUTORE: Mehmet Kanbay , Sidar Copur, Cicek N. Bakir, et al.