Background and objectives: In medullary sponge kidney (MSK)—a common malformative renal condition in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis—hypercalciuria, incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis, and hypocitraturia are common. Clinical conditions with concomitant hypercalciuria and/or incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis are almost invariably associated with bone disease, making osteopathy highly likely in MSK, too. Patients with MSK have never been investigated for osteopathy; neither has the potential effect of potassium citrate administration (CA) on their urinary metabolic risk factors and on bone mineralization: Bone disease is very frequent in patients with MSK and concomitant PSRF. Long-term CA improves bone density. The concurrent effects of treatment on PSRF suggest that the subtle acidosis plays a pivotal role in bone disease and hypercalciuria in patients with MSK.