We describe a 7-month-old male with atypical features of autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) with sensorineural hearing loss. Uncharacteristically, he presented with mild acidosis, hypokalaemia and hypocalciuria as well as unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Subsequent investigations led to the discovery of both hyperoxaluria and beta2-microglobulinuria, thereby expanding the differential diagnosis to include both primary hyperoxaluria and Dent disease. Two mutations in the ATPV1B1 gene, one of which was novel, confirmed the diagnosis of dRTA. We consider the overlapping features of and diagnostic dilemmas involved in making a diagnosis of dRTA, primary hyperoxaluria and Dent disease in patients with infantile nephrocalcinosis. We highlight the occurrence of hyperoxaluria and low-molecular-weight proteinuria in patients with dRTA and propose that the phenotype of autosomal recessive dRTA with sensorineural hearing loss be broadened to include both hyperoxaluria and increased urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin.