Serum uric acid levels are altered by kidney disorders because the kidneys play a dominant role in uric acid excretion. Here, major kidney disorders which accompany hyperuricemia or hypouricemia, including their pathophysiology, are discussed. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperuricemia are frequently associated, but recent clinical trials have not supported the pathogenic roles of hyperuricemia in CKD incidence and progression. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is often associated with hyperuricemia, and hyperuricemia may be associated with an increased risk of diabetic kidney disease in patients with type 2 DM. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have a uricosuric effect and can relieve hyperuricemia in DM….